Recommended Reading

Youtube Clips

The Cruel Cut. (2013).

I will Never be Cut. (2011).

Information on FGM – Why it has no place in the 21st century. (2012).

A Ritual of Agony. (2011).

Health consequences and Clinical care

Isman, E., Ekéus, C., & Berggren, V. (2013). Perceptions and experiences of female genital mutilation after immigration to Sweden: an explorative study. Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives, 4(3), 93-98.

Johnsdotter, S., Moussa, K., Carlbom, A., Aregai, R., & Essén, B. (2009). "Never my daughters": a qualitative study regarding attitude change toward female genital cutting among Ethiopian and Eritrean families in Sweden. Health Care for Women International, 30(1-2), 114-133.

Jones, S. D., Ehiri, J., & Anyanwu, E. (2004). Female genital mutilation in developing countries: an agenda for public health response. European Journal of Gynaecology, and Reproductive Biology, 116(2), 144-151.

Lundberg, P., & Gerezgiher, A. (2008). Experiences from pregnancy and childbirth related to female genital mutilation among Eritrean immigrant women in Sweden. Midwifery, 24(2), 214-225.

McCaffrey, M. (1995). Female genital mutilation: consequences for reproductive and sexual health. Sexual & Marital Therapy, 10(2), 189-200.

Mulongo, P., Hollins Martin, C., & McAndrew, S. (2014). The psychological impact of   Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) on girls/women’s mental health: a narrative literature review. Journal of Reproductive & Infant Psychology, 32(5), 469-485.

Reisel, D., & Creighton, S. M. (2015). Long term health consequences of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). Maturitas, 80(1), 48-51.

Utz-Billing, I. I., & Kentenich, H. H. (2008). Female genital mutilation: an injury, physical and mental harm. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 29(4), 225-229.

World Health Organization. (2001). Female genital mutilation and harmful traditional practices, Progress report. Geneva: WHO.

World Health Organization. (2001). Female genital mutilation the prevention and the management of the health complications, Policy guidelines for nurses and midwives. Geneva: WHO.

World Health Organization. (2008). Eliminating female genital mutilation: an interagency statement. Geneva: UNAIDS, UNDP,UNECA, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCHR, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM, WHO.

World Health Organization. (2010). Global strategy to stop health-care providers from performing female genital mutilation. Geneva: UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM, WHO,FIGO, ICN, MWIA, WCPA, WMA.

World Health Organization. (2014). Female Genital Mutilation Fact sheet N°241. Geneva: WHO


Briggs, L. (1999). Socio-cultural implications of female genital mutilation in Nigeria. West African Journal Of Nursing, 10(2), 124-126.

Guzman, A. L. (2011). Female genital mutilation: cultural practice or human rights  violation? The Alabama Nurse, 38(1), 1.

Human Rights Watch. (2010). They took me and told me nothing: Female genital mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan. Iraq: Human Rights Watch.

Legato, M. (2002). Rethinking circumcision: medical intervention, religious ceremony, or mutilation? Journal of Gender-Specific Medicine, 5(4), 8-10.

Rouzi, A. A. (2013). Facts and controversies on female genital mutilation and Islam. The   European Journal Of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care: The Official Journal Of The European Society Of Contraception, 18(1), 10-14.


Abdalla, R. (1982). Sisters in Affliction: Circumcision and Infibulation of Women in Africa.           
London: Zed Press.

Adamson, F. (1992). Female Genital Mutilation: A Counselling Guide for Professionals. London:Forward.

Dorkenoo, E. (1994). Cutting the Rose. Female Genital Mutilation: The Practice and Its Prevention. London: Minority Rights Group.

Dorkenoo, E. and Elworthy, S (1992).  Female Genital Mutilation: Proposals for Change. London: Minority Rights Group.

El Dareer, A. (1982). Woman why do you weep? Circumcision and its Consequences. London: Zed Press.

El Saadawi, N. (1980). The Hidden Face of Eve: Women in the Arab World. London: Zed Press.

Rahman, A., &  Toubia, N. (2000). Female Genital Mutilation: A Guide to Laws and Policies Worldwide. London: Zed Press.

Skaine, R. (2005). Female Genital Mutilation: Legal, Cultural and Medical Issues. London: McFarland..